SCHOOL OF NURSING
RN-BSN PROGRAM

COLLEGE 
OF 
HEALTH
AND 
URBAN AFFAIRS

COURSE
DESCRIPTION

GENERAL INFO REQUIREMENTS

SCHEDULE
DUE DATES

 

RN-BSN MAIN PAGE

Professional Nursing I: Socialization
LEARNING

To e-mail the instructor  phillips@fiu.edu

ASSIGNMENT (FOR WEB-BASED ONLY STUDENTS)  
Read Chapter 8 (The Nurse as a Learner and Teacher)  in your textbook Professional Nursing Practice: Concepts and Perspectives and review the handout below.

CLASS HANDOUT

DEFINITION
CLIENT/PATIENT EDUCATION
Client education is a legal and professional responsibility of the nurse.

        In 1972, the AHA's Patients' Bill of Rights included client education.

        Nurse Practice Acts include client teaching as a function of nursing.

        Client education involves promotion, protecting and maintaining health.

FACILITATORS OF LEARNING
Learning is facilitated in an atmosphere:

        That encourages people to be active.

        That promotes and facilitates the individual's discovery of the personal meaning or ideas.

        That emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning.

        In which difference is good and desirable.

        That consistently recognizes people's right to make mistakes.

        That tolerates ambiguity.

        In which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self-evaluation.

        That encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self.

        In which people are encourage to trust in themselves as well as external sources.

        In which people feel themselves respected.

        In which people fell they are accepted.

        That permits confrontation.  

 

LEARNING THEORIES

Learning Theory

Theorists

Learning Principles

Behavioral Theory

Thorndike--Connectionism Pavlov--Stimulus-Response
Skinner--Operant Conditioning
Wolfe--Stimulus Substitution
Bandura--Modeling

Humans learn through trial and error.

Learning develops over time.

Given a stimulus, the learner responds.

Positive and negative feedback influence learning; positive feedback is remembered longer.

Learning is strengthened each time a positive 
response is received or a negative consequence is avoided.

Learning occurs through linking the behavior with the associated response.

Learning remains until other learning interferes with the original learned response.

Cognitive Theory

Piaget--Cognitive Discovery Lewin--Field Theory
Gagne--Information Processing
Bloom--Hierarchical Structure

Learning is based on a change of perception.

Learning is influenced by the senses.

Perception is dependent upon learning and is influenced by internal and external variables.

Personal characteristics have an impact on how a cue is perceived.

Perceptions are selectively chosen to be focused on by the individual.

Humanist Theory

Rogers--Self-Directed Learning
Maslow--Hierarchy of Needs
Combs--Perceptual-Existential TH
Dewey--Values Clarification
Glasser--Reality Theory
Knowles--Androgogy

Learning is self-initiated.

The learner is an active participant in the teaching-learning process.

Learning should promote the development of insight, judgment, values, and self-concept.

Learning proceeds best if it is relevant to the learner.

In summary:
        Perception is necessary.
        Conditioning is a process.
        Learning may occur through imitation.
        Learning may occur with trial and error.
        Learning may occur with problem solving.
        Concept development is part of the learning process.
        Motivation is a must.
        Physical/mental readiness is a must.
        Active participation is a must.
        New learning is based on previous knowledge/experience.
        Emotional climate effects learning.
        Repetition strengthens learning.
        Reinforcement influences learning.

Andragogy (art and science of helping adults learn) vs. pedagogy (art and science of helping 
children learn)  

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 
CHILD LEARNERS AND ADULT LEARNERS

CHILD LEARNERS (PEDAGOGY)

ADULT LEARNERS (ANDRAGOGY)

        Compulsory

        Emphasis on subject matter

        Serves long-range needs

        Less flexible

        Learner has fewer experiences

        Major activity of learner

        Relatively long in duration

        Full time activity

        Disciplined situation

        Learner has less self-image

        Fact learning

        More lecture

        More absolutes

        More teacher directed

        Voluntary

        Emphasis on learner

        Serves immediate needs

        Very flexible

        Learner's experience used often.

        Not the learner's major activity

        Short duration

        Part-time activity

        Social situation

        Learner has more self-image

        Problem solving

        More discussion

        More hypothesis

        More learner-directed  

Andragogic Concepts

        An adult's previous experiences can be used as a resource for learning.

        Readiness to learn to often related to a developmental task or role.

        An adult is more oriented to learning when the material is immediately useful.

Andragogic Principles

        Learning is an experience that occurs inside the learner and is achieved by the learner.

        Learning is the discovery of personal meaning and relevance of data.

        Learning is a consequence of experience.

        Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.

        Learning is sometimes a painful process.

        One of the richest resources for learning is the learner himself.

        The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual.

        The processes of problem solving and learning are highly unique and individual.  

WRITING GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

        Setting goals and objectives should be a collaboration between nurse and client.

        Goals are broad or general statements that refer to long-term outcomes.

        Learning objectives are specific and contain performance (behavior), conditions of evaluation, and criteria (standards of performance considered acceptable)

o       Objectives are useful for instructional program development.

o       Objectives provide guidelines for conducting instruction.

o       Objectives provide guidelines for evaluation of instruction.

o       Objectives result in learner success, increased accountability, improved communication, tighter evaluation, and a framework for allocating resources.  

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOALS

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Goals are learner oriented, not teacher oriented
Goals are broad, general statements.
Goals describe learner outcomes in general terms.
Goals often refer to a long-term outcome.

Goals statements often use the words AS EVIDENCED BY to point to a list of learning objectives (see next column).

Objectives are learner oriented, not teacher oriented. Objectives are specific statements.
Objectives:

  • Identify condition of evaluation

  • Identify observable, measurable behavior

  • Identify standard of performance

EXAMPLES OF GOALS

EXAMPLES OF OBJECTIVES

The learner will think critically... AS EVIDENCED BY

Given a list of foods (condition of evaluation), the 
learner will be able to select foods (measurable behavior) that are low in fat (standard of performance).

The learner will be able to communicate effectively... AS EVIDENCED BY

Given foods that are on a menu (condition of evaluation), the learner will be able to prepare foods  (measurable behavior) using low fat cooking methods  (standard of performance).

The learner will be able to understand client behaviors.... AS EVIDENCED BY

Given food choices (condition of evaluation), the client 
will implement a low fat diet (measurable behavior) within one month (standard of performance).

Writing learning objectives

        Learning objectives encompass the COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE and PSYCHOMOTOR 
learning domains.

        Within each domain, there are levels of learning ranging from lowest level to the highest level.

        "New" learners begin at A lower level; for example, in the COGNITIVE domain, new learners begin at the knowledge level (memorization of material). 

        As learners progress through the levels, they eventually should reach the highest level, evaluation (judging the value of the learned material). 

DOMAINS AND LEVELS OF LEARNING

Domain

LEVEL (LOW TO HIGH)

COGNITIVE
DOMAIN

Knowledge--Remembers previously learned material.

Comprehension--Understands the meaning of learned material.

 

Application--Applies newly learned material in new concrete situations.

 

Analysis--Breaks learned material into component parts and separates important from unimportant material.

 

Synthesis--Takes parts of learned material and puts them together to form new material.

 

Evaluation--Judges the value of the learned material.

 

AFFECTIVE
DOMAIN

LEVEL (LOW TO HIGH)

Receiving--Willingness to pay attention to particular information, 
phenomenon, or behavior.

 

Responding--Actively participates by listening and responding.

 

Valuing--Attaches a value or worth to a particular object, phenomenon, 
or behavior.

 

Organization--Develops a value system by bringing different values and resolving conflicts.

 

Characterization--Acts according to a value system. 

 

PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

LEVEL (LOW TO HIGH)

Perception--Uses the senses to obtain cues to guide motor activity.

 

Set--Refers to readiness to take immediate action: Includes mental, physical and emotional readiness.

 

Guided Response--Performs an act under the guidance of a teacher.

 

Mechanism--Performs a learned activity with confidence and 
proficiency.

 

Complex Overt Response--Performs a motor skill competently, accurately, and smoothly.

 

Adaptation--Performs skills and adapts them to special 
circumstances.

 

Origination--Creates new movement patterns to suit a particular 
problem. 

 

        Learning objectives are written so the "verb" points to the level of the objective.  For example, if the verb is "describe," that learning objective is written at the comprehension level (see below). 

        Teachers should write learning objectives so a learner moves from a lower level to a higher level in a domain.   


USEFUL VERBS FOR WRITING "COGNITIVE DOMAIN" OBJECTIVES

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Recall
Define Recognize Name

Describe
Compare
Illustrate
Interpret
State
Rephrase
Restate
Reorder
Contrast Differentiate Explain

 

Apply
Solve
Classify
Identify
Choose
Select
Employ
Catalog Categorize
Isolate
Group
Rank
Survey

Analyze
Conclude
Infer
Distinguish Deduce
Detect
Correlate Discover Diagnose

 

Synthesize
Solve
Predict
Discover
Construct
Produce
Originate
Plan
Design
Combine
Develop Compose
Create
Adapt

Judge
Argue
Decide
Appraise Evaluate

 

USEFUL VERBS FOR WRITING "AFFECTIVE DOMAIN" OBJECTIVES

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organization

Characterization

Attend to

Participate
Discuss
Communicate
Inform
Share
Report
Consider

React
Debate
Implement

 

Resolve
Contribute
Assist
Permit
Cooperate
Relate

Judge
Argue
Decide
Appraise
Evaluate

 

USEFUL VERBS FOR WRITING "PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN" OBJECTIVES

Perception

Set

Guided Response

Mechanism

Complex Overt Response

Adaptation

Origination

Observe
Listen

 

 

Locate Position Prepare
Detect
Find
Examine

Demonstrate Show

 

 

Manipulate Calibrate
Insert
Remove
Rotate
Grasp
Hold
Lift
Pull
Push
Tighten
Loosen  

Operate
Use

 

 

Adapt Administer Assess Transfer
Fix
Replace Measure

 

  

Devise
Invent
Draw

Now look at the examples again:

        Given a list of foods (condition of evaluation), the learner will be able to select foods (measurable behavior) that are low in fat (standard of performance).  

        Given foods that are on a menu (condition of evaluation), the learner will be able to demonstrate food preparation (measurable behavior) using low fat cooking methods  (standard of performance).  

        Given food choices (condition of evaluation), the client will implement a low fat diet (measurable behavior) within one month (standard of performance).  

Do you recognize the domain and level of the objectives?